Mount Nemrut (Namamunda Kommagene) National Park is located to the wes of the Euprahates River basin, within the boundries of Adiyaman Turkey. There is a tumulus located at the summit of Mount Nemrut which is 2150 meters high, in the northest (43 km) of Kahta district of Adiyaman. This tumulus, at a height of 50 meters and 150 meters wide, belongs to Commagene state King Antiochus Apiphanes (62-32 B.C.) Nemrut Mount is rumored that Antiochos was buried in a tomb carved into the rocks, and tumulus wa created by covering this room with small stones. East, west and north of the tumulus are covered with three courtyards. Northern terrace of the tumulus is a ceremonial way connecting the eastern and western courtyards.
History of Mount Numrut Turkey
The name of the sacred mountain in the Scythian / Khatt langugae is “Namamunda “, meaning the “Dome of the Sacred Mother Sky”. It is understood that this was built in pre-historic times as a sancutary on behalf of the Khatti Goddess of the Sun, Khepat, and that a large tample was built here; later, the matriarchial beliefs of the Khati, were replaced by the Commagne, who held patriarchial beliefs, and as a result converted the area to the Sacred Area of Antiochus, their Divine King. The name of the sacred mountain was later changed to Nemrut. A palace, ceremonial areas, columned roads, as well as a temple were built on the mountain where the Devine King Antichus held his religious ceremonies, and colossal statues of gods and goddesses were put up on the sides of these roads. It is understood from an inscription about Zeus here that the king of the gods had the Galley of teh Gods built in 69 B.C. in order to reach his heavenly throne, and for his spirit to fnd peace. The most important structure of the sacred area, which is in the shape of an east and west terrace is the Mauusoleum of Antiochus, which is organised from stone masonry in the form of a pyramid. This tomb is 50m in height and 150 m in width. On the three terraces in front of the tomb, are sculptures depicting gods and mythological creatures. In an inscription here, Commagene Devine King Antiochus relates that he placed his own but here with the statues of the Gods in order to be honoured in the same way as themç
Nemrut Mount Turkey Guide
Eastern couryard is decorated with magnificent sculptures and reliefs. In the courtyard by the tumulus, there are god and king statues in height of 8 to 10 meters. They are in an order and all their heads fell to the ground. God statues from left to right are Apollo, Tyche, Zeus, Antiochus and Heracles. View of the sunrise from the east terrace are perfect. Mount Nemrut is deemed to be the 8th wonder of the world. The most important pre-historic remains in the region are the ruins of of the ancient city of Perri, north of Adiyaman Turkey, and the Pirin Caves.
On the both sides of this row, eagle and lion statues were standing as a guard. There were inscriptions of commandments and laws of the country and details of worship proces on the back side of the statue pedestals.
The remains of the walls of the palace and the aqueduct of the ancient city can still be seen. ın the region, the 210 caves carved out of rocks are in part a tomb, and in part were used as residences. Mining, houehold and articles of daiily use, from the Bronze and Iron Ages were found in the caves, which are presumed to have been made during the Neolithic Chipped Stone Age.
East of the courtyard was bordered with a fire altar; north and south were bordered with orthostats (stone stables). Reliefs depicting Persian (alter) ancestors of Antiochus in the east row, reliefs depicting Macedonian (mother ) linage are embroidered.
Also, statues in the western courtyars of the tumulus are formed as same as in the east. Those statues which’s head are on the ground have been better protected.
Orthostatic rows showing the linage are located in different places because of the topography. Reliefs of Macedonian ancestors are placed across the statues, and reliefs of Persians are placed in the east of the courtyard. Relief of Antiochus handshaking with gods and lion relief are interesting in western courtyard. Stars in the lion relief give the date of July 7, 62 B.C. when Antiochus acceded to the throne.
The name of the Adiyaman central province in name in the Khatt language is “Adaumana”, meaning the “Country of the Great Mother Goddess”. The most important ruins in the city are Adiyaman Castle, the Great Mosque, Madrasah and Complex built in 1885. Samosta / Samsat, the capital of the Commagene Kingdom, and home to the famous writer Lukionas, of the ancient period, is 35 km. South -east of Adiyaman Turkey. The place previously known as Kahta, and known as Arsemia during the Commagene period is whre a 150 m. rock has been carved into the shape of arches and ladders, and is the largest inscripted rock in the world. ın the inscription, the God of the Sun and Light, Mitradates Kolonikos, who is considered to be the ancestor of Commagene, is praised, and remembered with his divine identy and his actions, and it is explanied that he is buried here. Karakuş Hill, 10 km north of Kahta was formed by placing cylindrical stones on top of each other, on top of a Doric headed column, and a statue of the sphyx, placed on the molumn in the same was as an eagle, can be seen. Cendere Bridge which was built during the Roman period, is about 15km north of Kahta.