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Facts of Ottoman Empire with Its Maps

TURKISH June 19, 2016
Ottoman Empire Emblem

Ottoman Empire Emblem

Do you know Ottoman Empire? This Empire on of the greatest Empire of the world. It established since the day won so many war, conquered so many places and keep going to grow. End of the its rising era, ıt was ruling the 3 continent. Ottoman Empire have raised a lot of Sultans that they ruled the Empire succesfully. Maybe you know them maybe not. For instance a few of them;  Mehmed II (The Conqueror), Yildirim Beyazit, Yavuz Sultan Selim, Suleyman the Magnificent and more…

Ottoman Empire history begins with the Seljuk. This tribe is just one of the powerfull tribes of Turks. They works during the their life for name Islam. And after this so many Turks group joined them. Also, Konya was been capital city of Seljuk. They made war a lot  with Byzantine Empire. However, after collapsed teh Seljuk, Ottoman Empire was established western side of Anatolia. Bursa was first capital city of Ottoman Empire. Their reign has continued to Turkish Republic which is nearly 600 years. The Empire was centered in present day Turkey. The name of the Empire comes from the founder. The name of first founder of the Empire was; Osman. (Ottoman)

Ottoman Empire Definition and Facts

The nick name of the Empire: Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye 

During Years: 1299- 1922

Capital Cities: Kütahya , Bursa, Edirne, Constantinople (Now Istanbul), 

Languages: Turkish, Persian, Arabic and More..

Religion : Islam

  • Absolute monarchy
  • (1299–1876)
  • (1878–1908)
  • (1920–1922)
  • Constitutional monarchy
  • (1876–1878)
  • (1908–1920)
 • 1299–1326 Osman I (first)
 • 1918–1922 Mehmed VI (last)
 • 1512–1520 Selim I (first)
 • 1922–1924 Abdülmecid II (last)
Grand Vizier
 • 1320–1331 Alaeddin Pasha (first)
 • 1920–1922 Ahmet Tevfik Pasha(last)

Name of Ottoman Empire Sultans

  1. Osman I
  2. Orhan
  3. Murad I
  4. Bayezid
  5. Mehmed I
  6. Murad II
  7. Mehmed II
  8. Bayezid II
  9. Selim I
  10. Suleyman I
  11. Selim II
  12. Murad III
  13. Mehmed III
  14. Ahmed I
  15. Osman II
  16. Mustada I
  17. Murad IV
  18. İbrahim (Abraham)
  19. Mehmed IV
  20. Suleyman II
  21. Mustafa II
  22. Ahmed III
  23. Mahmut I
  24. Osman III
  25. Mustafa III
  26. Abdulhamid I
  27. Selim III
  28. Mustafa IV
  29. Mahmut II
  30. Abdulmecid
  31. Abdulaziz 
  32. Murad 5
  33. Abdulhamid II
  34. Mehmet V
  35. Mehmed VI

Ottoman Empire Map

The Empire since the day that it was established, continued to grow. End of the rising era of the Empire, They was ruling the 3 continet. After the rising era they have lost their earths day by day and after Wold War I, Ottoman Empire totally collapsed. After this, instead of Ottoman Empire, Turkish Republic was established. In the rising era, the Empire was so big according to other countries, nations… We’ll share with you Ottoman Empire map for understand to How big it is.

Ottoman Empire Map end of the rising era

Ottoman Empire Map end of the rising era

Ottoman Empire Flag

So many people are wondering Ottoman Empire Flag. Actually, you should know; they have only one flag. The Empire was used, Flag, symbol of Islam, symbol of continent etc. But, we’ll share with you offical Flag of Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire Flag

Ottoman Empire Flag

Brief Ottoman Empire History

Ottoman Culture

Central Asia was the homeland of the Turks. Over the centruies, they migrated in large groups or organized military expeditions to various regions in Asia and even to Central Europe. Early in the 7th century, these nomadic Turkish tribes started to settle and establish states. The most important was the small Ottoman principality in Asia Minor that grew into the powerfull, 600-year Ottoman Empire. Although the Ottomans constitued the minority in the lands they conquered, they succeeded thanks to their superior organizational and administrative ability, and they ensured a secure, peaceful life for their multinational and multicultural subjects, who incuded Jews, Christians and Moslems. For almost 400 years, the Ottoman Empire ruled lands extendding from the Arabian Peninsula to Russia, from Persia to the Balkans, Greece and as far as Vienna . Towards the end of the 19th century, agitation by foreign powers led to revolts in some areas under Ottoman rule, thereby weaking the internal structure of the empire. World War I was the Final blow that brought on the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The lands of the empire were to be divided among the victors, but Kemal Atatürk led the Turkish nation to victory after a war for indepence, and in 1923 established the Repuplic of Turkey on the remains of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire Word War I and Fall

In the WWI, Ottoman Empire was side of the Germany and took a beating for this. İt is also, known as symbol of collapsed of the Ottoman Empire.  Nationalism was rise in whole world and effected the bad way the Empire. Because, Ottoman was established with different kind of Nations. The alliance of the Empire are Germany, Austria- Hungary and at the begin of war Russia was side of Ottoman but later it has changed its side. 

After the WWI Ottoman Empire was fall nearly. A few years later, fall of the Empire, instead of Ottoman, Turkish Republic was established and its keep going to its way.

Ottoman Empire And Topkapi Palace

topkapi palace imperial gate

topkapi palace imperial gate

The oldest and largest palace in the world today is Topkapi Palace, a museum since 1924. The palace is on the site of the acropolis of Byzantium, over looking the Golden Horn, the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmara. The palace comlex covers area of 700,000 sq.m. and is surrounded by five kilometres of walls. Topkapi Palace was second palace built by Turks in Istanbul. After young Sultan Mehmet II conquared the city in 1453, he built his first palace where Sıtanbul University stands today. Soon afterward he ordered a new palace and fouteen years later, in 1479, Topkapi Palace (intially called the new palace) became the Sultan’s residence and centre of goverment.

Ottoman Empire Culture

Harem (Saraglio)

Topkapi Palace Harem

Topkapi Palace Harem

The Harem of Topkapı Palace is made up of about 400 rooms dren and other members of the family, as wall as the servants and eunuchs. No outsiders were allowed to enter. Throughout the centruies, these private quarters of the palace gave rise to many stories and legends, but evidence suggests that llife in the Harem was not as exotic as people have been led to believe, though is must have been very indeed.

Karagoz - Hacivat

A traditional theatre play from Turkey. Its name is “Hacivat and Karagöz”, which is known as some kind of shadow game…


The name külliye is used for a complex set of structures that cover a part or whole of a school, hospital, hammam, bazaar, soup kitchen, caravanserai adjacent to a mosque. From this perspective, külliye was the center with important functions in city life where public social, cultural and healt necessities were met. Külliye brought vivacity to the place it was built at and increased the pace of urban development.

Mosque: Mosques that stand alone or are built within a külliye, are religious constructions where the Muslims carried out their salah (namaz). Salah is one of the Five Pillars of Islam that has to be carried out five times a day (morning, noon, midafternoon, evening, dusk).

The royal loge (hünkar mahfili) is the private place fort he sultan who performs the salah at the mosque and it has detailed ornaments. The gallery floors higher than prayer areas are called Kadınlar (Women’s) Mahfili for the performance of salah by women. Ottomans who started state process after sultanade period in 1299 had their first mosque covered with single dome with a caliber of 8-10 meters. Afterwards, mosques with ‘’T’’ shape were built that had rectangular plan under two domes and where tabhanes (book printing rooms) bulged on the line of the back dome. These examples are mostly seen in Bursa and Edirne. Again, there are different implementations with the roofing system covered with a number of domes. The plan of Üç Şerefeli Mosque in Edirne built by Murat II between 1438 and 1447, constitutes an important phase for transition from mosques with multiple feet to large mosques with a central dome. The dome of this mosque is set on the hexagonal arch system and carries different innovations from the features of the period with its arcaded courtyard and four minarets.

Fatih Mosque (1463-70) built after the conquest of Istanbul had a large dome covering the middle section and under the influence of Hagia Sophia, a half dome supporting it on the side of mihrab. An improved version of first Fatih Mosque that was collapsed was successfully implemented at Beyazıt Mosque, supported with two half domes on its axis.

When the Ottomans were turning into an empire, Classical Period started in architecture in 16th century when the most beautiful works were created. The greatest architect of this period is Mimar Sinan who further improved the level of architecture. Later on, Davut Ağa and Sedefkar Mehmet Ağa also continued his style. Mihrimah Sultan Mosque at Üsküdar completed by Mimar Sinan in 1548 archieved its perfection level with the three semidomes developed from the plan scheme of Beyazıt Mosque. Also, Şehzade Mosque he built between 1543 and 1548 did so with the four semidomes supporting the central dome. Again, the hexagon plan line of Üç Şerefeli Mosque was implemented with the support of corner trompe I’oeil at Sokullu Mehmet Pasha Mosque in Kadırga and Atik Valide Mosque in Üsküdar, both built by Mimar Sinan. These structures were further improved at Rüstem Pasha Mosque at Istanbul and Sokullu Mehmet Pasha Mosque at Azapkapı with octagonal schema with eight ranks. This plan shape reached its peak with Selimiye Mosque at Edirne which is among the most important structures of world architecture history an done of the most perfect Works of central plan. Beginning with the middle of 18th century, art trends of European origin were increasingly felt. The trends used for ornamentation at the beginning were reflected on architecture in 19th century. The mosques that were reduced in size at the period manifested them selves while addressing the eye. At the beginning of 20th century, 1th National Architecture trend, which was the new classical, started to be influential.


Madrasah: They are the education institutions for middle and higher education after Sıbyan Mektebi is completed that constitutes primary education. They generally had one floor and cosisted for student rooms called cells and a class surrounding the courtyard. The students had their allowances from the charitable fund of the madrasah, sheltered in their rooms and had their meals at alms house.

Turkish Baths

Turkish Baths

Turkish Baths (Hammams): The fame of ‘’Turkish Hammam’’ spread due to the importance that Islam gave to hammam as a result Islam’s care for hygiene and the admiration Europeans towards the structures here. Hammams of Ottoman period were generally in double hammam shape with sections for women and men. These sections with symmetrical plan features were preferably on different roads or streets. The hammams were divided in three sections and the first section was called Soyunmalık, that is called hotbed (camekan). In this location that is made for the rest of the people entering hammams, there are sections for dressing and undressing. The second section called Soğukluk (the cold room) is the place where the warm air prepared the body for the heat. From this section on, comes the third section of the hammam named Sıcaklık (or caldarium). The person is placed on a heated marble platform for sweating and massage is made by rubbers. On the corners, there is halvet, that is the cells used for washing. The caldarium with marble walls receive the light from the holes on the dome above.

Tabhane (Guesthouse): The rooms (zaviye) that were first used to shelter the mobile dervishes within the mosque were taken as separate places afterwards with complex and they were turned into tabhane with multiple rooms.

İmaret (soup kitchen): They were the institutions that provided free meals for the attendants serving at various parts of complex, the teachers and students of the schools, the visitors accommodating at the guest house and the poor and homeless around.

Dar al-shifa (Hospital): It served as a hospital and for some period, it also was a medical school.

Tomb (Türbe): They were grave structures consisting of single structure with square, polygon or circle plan covered with a dome. In general, they were structures where sultan, women members of the dynasty, sultan’s son, and members of dynasty or high level officials were buried.

Fountain: They were made to meet the need for hygiene and drinking water. After 18th century, building fountains was more widespread and they had richer designs. Particularly, the fountains at squares are noteworthy with their monumental look.

Water dispenser: They mostly had circle or polygon plans and they were made to deliver drinking water. On special occasions such as Bayram (national festival), they also delivered sherbet.

Caravanserai / Inn: Caravanserai was the place where travelers and merchants stayed with their animals. They were founded in the cities and on the road where caravans passed. Later on, the buildings with commercial structures in the towns were called inns.

Arasta: They are generally the bazaars with a line of shops.

Top 5 Sights from Ottoman Empire Architecture and Natural Beauty


Galata tower and amazing view of Istanbul

Galata tower and amazing view of Istanbul

Sultan Mehmed II assigned a subaşı (or voyvoda) and a judge the to Galata after the surrender of the city and placed it directly under Ottoman administration. The Sultan demolished parts of the city walls in order the protect the city, afraid that the Christian majority could surrender the tower to Crusaders arriving from teh Sea.

Dolmabahce Palace

Dolmabahce Palace

Dolmabahce Palace

The location of Dolmabahçe Palace is believed to be the spot where the Argounat anchored while Jason was on his quest for the Golden Fleece. Dolmabahce Palace in Besiktas in Istanbul Turkey. You reached that place different kind of Public Transport. İt is one of the most beautiful structure that leaved to Turkish Republic from Ottoman Empire.

Golden Horn

Golden Horn

Golden Horn

The natural harbour of the Golden Horn, a narrow inlet dividing the European side into two, played an important role in the development of the city of Istanbul. Opposite the old city is the Galata district. The Golden Horn is approximately 8 km. long and is entrance from the Bosphorus is guite wide.

Süleymaniye Mosque

Suleymaniye Mosque

Suleymaniye Mosque

The Most striking of the all domes and minarets that define the skyline of Istanbul are those of the Suleymaniye Mosque, the largest and most majestic in the city. It fascinate every visitor with the aestich harmony of its interior and exterior, and its pleasing proportions. By any standard, the Suleymaniye mosque is an architectural masterpiece. Restoration of the Mosque completed in 2011.

Blue Mosque

Blue Mosque

Blue Mosque

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, one of the most revered masterpieces not only of Turkey but of the entire Islamic world, inspires deep admiration in all those who visit it. This mosque with six minarets, built between 1609 and 1616, is a striking example of the classic Turkish mosque and surrounded by many monuments dating to earlier phases of history of Istanbul. The fine silhoutte is a prominent part of IStanbul’s beatiful skyline as seen from the sea.


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