Turkey, which is located on Anatolia, a realm of Gods, Goddesses, beliefs and civilisations, is a mosaic of culture. The oldest carpet in the world is the Pazırık carpet, which can be found at the Pazırık Cairn, in the Altay Mountains. Carpets and rugs which are adorned with smilar motifs, and which show the characteristics and ways of life of the people, can be seen primarily in Anatolia, and also in all other Turkish geographies. The most important carpets in modern day Turkey are those wowen at the regions of Hereke, Kayseri, Milas, Yağcıbedir, Sivas and Van. Other handcrafts are felt, hand weaving of thin inlace, woodworking, metal working, tile making and copper working.
Every nation has their own flag in the world. A nation’s flag is symbol of their independence and other things about their country, government etc. So, Flag is so important for each country. When I search on internet, I realized; so many people are wondering to Turkish flag. Ofcourse this is my opinion, but it is one of the most beatiful flags of the world.
It has a anique story that about the Independence War of Turks. During the peroiod of Independence War, we lost too many people for liberty of this country and this flag represent the this people. Color of this Flag, white and Red. The red one represents the blood of out death people. And you can see a half moon and the star. Half moon is a special symbol for Islamic belied system and star is representing the a new rising nation and their liberty. You can Turkish Flag picture, which is under this line..
Turkish cuisine, It is the third largest cuisine in the world and consists of meat, kebabs, pastries and vegetables marinated in olive oil. At the top of the list of numerous varietes are doner kebab, which are all globally well known specialities. Food culture is varied in diffrent regions and geographical areas.
Fish and vegetables marinated in olive oil are at the forefront in coastal towns, whilw meals made from lamb and beef are at the forefront in mountainous regions. Specialities made with anchovies, savoy cabbages and cornbread are eaten in the Black Sea region, while in the Eastern and South- Eastern region, kebabs, grills, and varities of meat dishes cooked in sludge, tandoor, casserole, ceramic and earthenware pots after being processed, and presented with magnificent tastes. Also, everywhere in Turkey, the meaty bread, rice, cracked wheat, filled pastry, flat bread, noodles, pasta, yogurt, yougurt drink, cured spiced beef, garlic sausage, stuffed vegetables, pies, and bread varieties which have been brought from Turkistan, the Motherland of the Turks, and which have not changed for five thousand years, are the tastiest examples of the Turkish world. Despite also drinking sherbet, and particularly today, tea in a small glass, Turkish Coffee, which is made in special stone mortars, and served in small coffee cups, is very famous Anatolia has four climatic regions and this also brought the culture and use of various types of spices, which are unique to the area. Turkey posseses very good vineyards, and the most popular alcoholic drink is raki, also known as “lion’s milk”, which is made from graphes and anseed. Turkey is also the land where best wines were produced in the ancient world, and these are still served today. In taverns in all coastal towns, you can find varieties of fish with raki and wine.
The product of puverzing naturally dried plant leaves and seeds gives different flavors to food. Spices have an important place in cuisne of every culture. In Turkey, the most used spices are mint, black paper, oregano, cumin, red peper, sumac and cinnamon. Spices are in dispensable in Turkish meat dishes and kebabs at the same time. Kebabs are made after maturing the meat in sauces prepared with spices.
It was predicted that tea was out from China 5000 years ago and spread all over the world in the course of time. Tea is an indispensable drink for breakfast in Turkey. Tea, which is drunk throughout the day, is one of the most important treats.
It is a unique and special taste, combining foam, aroma and treats with preparation and cooking techniques. It’s the only coffee that is served with sediment. Copper pots are used to make Turkish coffee. Traditionallyi it is baked over a coal fire. Reading coffee ground is passed down through generations and is common place to day.
Bagels are shaped as a circle after adding water with molasses to leavened dough, and then coated with sesame and baked in the oven for 20-30 minutes. It is preferred to be crips. In general, when it is preferred for breakfast it is eaten with cheese and tea. Today, bagels are sold in modern bake houses (bagel place) as well as by street vendors on handbarrows.
Delight has been made and enjoyed in Anatolia since approximetely the 15th century. It has changed since refined sugar and starch were bruoght to the 17th century.
Turkish Water Pipe
It is a traditional tobacco smoking tool in Aisa. A water pipe is a mechanism allowing the user to inhale smoke after it is filtered by water. It has become a part of Eastern culture, meaning more than a simple smoking tool. Smoking style and customs have developed over hundreds of years.
Turkish Rakı is produced by distiling anise seed with suma (first distilled rakı without anise), which is mixed with only grape and ethyl alcohol, twice. The alcohol level in raki ranges between 40% and 50%. It is the most popular alcolohic beverage of Turkish people. To serve rakı, first put into the glass. Then, water is added and its get white. Lastly, ice is added. It is drunk with appetizers such as fruit, cheese or food made with olive oil, and with friends over a chat.
Turkish music is an extension of the music of the palace, and is divided into two categories – Turkish Classical music, and Turkish folk Music- While the instruments in Clasiccal Music are mainly Middle Eastern, Folk Music is made with an instrument with three double strings, also known in the Turkish world as the lute. Turkish Folk Dancing is structured for variety and dancing takes place accompained by drums, shrill pipes, lutes, ladles, goblet drums and tambourines. The clothing reflects the authentic characteristics of teh regions. While fruit teas and black tea is very frequently consumed in Turkey on a daily basis, it is an important tradation to drink Turkish Coffee after meals. A large part of the demand for food is met by the dynamic, vivacious and colourful markets, known as Bazaars, which are situated in every residential area, where the numerous fruits and vegetables produced in Turkey are sold.
Backgammon is a two person game played on a board with 15 black and 15 white pieces. As far as is known, it was invented in Iran 1400 years ago. In bacgammon, six points facing each other represents 12 months, 15 white and 15 black pieces represent 15 night and 12 points facing each other represent 24 hours of a day.
Bath tradition is an ancient tradition that goes back to the Romans. The Turks, who came to Anatolia, combined their bath tradition with Roman and Byzantine tradition. The first publich bath is Çemberlitaş bath built by Mimar Sinan at request of Nurbanu Sultan, mother of Murat III. At the end of the 16th century, the number of baths was approaching five thousand. The baths in Istanbul are famous all over the world.
Seven different materials found in the nature, such as quartz, kaolin chalk and sand are milled. Water and mud are mixed until they are consistent. Desired objects are shaped by cutting pieces from prepared dough and they are left to dry. Pices that reach leather hardness from dough consistency are lined. The lining process allows dried objects to turn into a pure white color. This white background is the most important feature that separates Turkish tiles from other ceramics. Then the parts that are lined are cooked slowly for almost a day in an oven that is approximately 900 0 C. This process is called biscuits or first cooking. The desired patterns are drawn with cobalt or Indian ink inside of the patterns are painted with desired colors.
It is covered with a glassy glaze and second cooking is done. Pieces are taken one by one so as not to touch each other and smilar parts are put on the rack of the oven. Slowly baked tiles are also cooled very slowly to avoid being broken by sudden shock. Tile art works on three main items: vases, plates and tile wall panels. Turkish tile art goes back to the Karahan Dynasty. It shows that tile art has a history of more than a thousand years. Turks used tile often in architectural decoration.
It is believed the oldest carpet in the world is Pazirik Carpet, named after the area where it was discovered, and was weaved by Central Asian Turks in the 6th – 5th centruies. This rug is currently exhibited in Leningrad Hermitage Museum. In Turkey, carpets are named after the attributes or characteristics of the design of the region.
Religion : Islam or Islamic Religion
Islam is the last of the monotheistic religions with a holy book. Its prophet Muhammed and holy book is the Quran. It is believe that the Quran was created from revelations brought tı the prophet by Gabriel.
Anatolia, starting from the early Paleolithic period, has provided rich opportunities to huntergatherer groups and primative stone tools are found in natural caves and rock shelters, major settlements are in Istanbul such as Yarımburgaz Cave, Karain in Antalya, Beldibi, Öküzini and Belbaşı Caves.
Mesolithic Period (16.000-10.000 B.C.) in Turkey
Neolithic Period (10.000-5.500 B.C) in Turkey
Chalcolithic Period (5.500- 3.000 B.C.) in Turkey
Early Bronze Age (3.000 – 2.000 B.C) in Turkey
Begins with obtaining bronze by mixing copper and tin. People started to live cities surrounded by walls in this age which first kingdoms were established.
The first major central authority was established by the Hittites in Anatolia. It couldn2t be determined where axactly they came from. Living as principalities, Hitties created a central government by merging.
Urartu Government (850s B.C.)
Environmental threats led them to unite, so that Urartu Government was established.
Phrygians, who came with the migration which eliminated Hittites in the begining of 12 th century B.C., emerged as a central government in 750 B.C.
Lydians, Who lived in Gediz and Cayster region, became one of the strongest countries since 7 B.C.
Hellenistic Period (330 B.C – 30 B.C)
Macedonian King Alexander the Great entered Anatolia passing through Dardanelles and won the battle aganist Persians in 334. Alexander founded a great empire extending from Europe to India in the east and to Egypt in the south with the conquest he made.
Roman Period ( 30 B.C. – 395 A.D. )
During this period, traditional culture of Anatolia continues to live. Famous cities built in Hellenistic were equipped with sculptures and architectural works.
Byzantine Period (395 A.D. – 1453)
Istanbul (Byzantium, New Rome , Police, Constantinople) which was the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. became the center of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) after the Empire divided into two in 395.
Seljuk Period (1071 – 1308)
The Turks whose homeland was Central Asia settled Anatolia by raids and immigration. The main event that Seljuk Turks settled in Anatolia is Malazgirt Battle in August 26, 1071.
Ottoman Empire (1299 – 1922)
After the dispersion of Seljuk, Karamanids seemed to be the most powerful state amongst Turkish States. However, Ottomans who made their center Söğüt, inside the city of Bilecik didn’t take attention. Gazi Ertuğrul was appointed to Byzantine border by the order of Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin. Chieftain Osman (Osman Bey) who took the lead in 1281, declared indepence in 1299 and established Ottoman Empire.
Members of Commitee of Union and Progress left the country with the end of World War I. Everyside of Anatolia was started to be invaded. War of Independence under the leader ship of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is a political and military campaign to protect the unity of the country after the invasion of Ottoman Empire which was defeated in World War I. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who deserved his reputation with the success of Çanakkale War, went to Samsun to organize the resistance in May 19, 1919.
After the İndependence War, Anakara became the new capital with the şaw adopted in the parlement in October 13, 1923. Republic, based on the principle of national soverignty, was declared in October 29, 1923.