The Underground City
Underground cities were used as temporary shelters before and after Christianity. They were self-sufficent, and quite safe, with clean air from the ventilation system chinneys. Stroreys connected by narrow walkways were separated by round security gate made from millstones. Today, it is worth seeing the Kaymaklı, Derinkuyu, Mazı, Acıgöl and Ozkonak underground cities. Kaymaklı Underground city is 20 km south of the Nevsehir Turkey Settlement area. The city is underneath today’s settlement area. There are hundreds of tunnels connected to each other, it has 4 storeys, ventilation shafts, a pantry, warehouse, barn, and other such interconnected rooms and courtyards. 10km south of Kaymaklı Underground City is Derinkuyu Underground City. The depth of the underground city is 25 m., and it consists of interconnect courtyards, a dining hall, a church, a winery, bedrooms, cellar and barns. The celling of the missionary school on the second floor is covered by barrel vaults, and the rooms surrounding it are working chambers. The city is entered through the ventilation chimneys which also serve as water wells, and a church designed like a cross is reached on the storey by climbing down the steep staircase. Both underground cities are known to be connected to each other by a tunnel.
Aşıklı Höyük, in the Kızılay Village of Aksaray Province, is dated to the years 8300- 7500 B.C., and the findings in the digs here reflect all the details of an hunter – gatherer community evolving into agriculture and animal husbandry. This prehistoric settlement is also known to the oldest inhabited are in the Cappadocia Turkey Region.